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Key Amino Acids of Arabidopsis VKOR in the Activity of Phylloquinone Reduction and Disulfide Bond Formation

[ Vol. 22 , Issue. 1 ]


Xiao-Jian Yang, Hao-Ran Cui, Zhi-Bo Yu, Jia-Jia Du, Jia-Ning Xu and Xiao-Yun Wang   Pages 81 - 86 ( 6 )


Many proteins in chloroplast are regulated through the disulfide bond/thiol transformation to realize their activities. A homologue of VKOR (Vitamin K epoxide reductase) in Arabidopsis chloroplast is found to catalyze the disulfide bond formation in vivo and to mediate the specific phylloquinone reduction in vitro. It is also called LTO1 (Lumen Thiol Oxidoreductase 1). Investigations about functions and essential amino acid residues of AtVKOR have important theoretical significance to clarify the chloroplast redox regulation mechanism. In this study, several amino acids in the VKOR domain of AtVKOR were identified to be involved in binding of phylloquinone. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to study the function of these positions. The results suggested that residues Ser77, Leu87, Phe137 and Leu141 were quite important in the binding and catalyzing the reduction of phylloquinone. These residues were also involved in the electron transferring and disulfide bond formation of substrate proteins by motility assays in vivo, suggesting that the binding of phylloquinone not only affected the delivery of electrons to phylloquinone but also affected the whole electron transfer process. The conserved cysteines in the AtVKOR domain also played critical roles in phylloquinone reduction. When each of the four conserved cysteines was mutated to alanine, the mutants lost reduction activity entirely, suggesting that the four conserved cysteines played crucial roles in the electron transfer process.


AtVKOR, cysteines, disulfide bond formation, key amino acids, molecular docking, phylloquinone reduction.


College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong Taian 271018, People's Republic of China.

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