Kexin Du, Congmin Wang, Ping Liu, Yuan Li* and Xi Ma* Pages 397 - 405 ( 9 )
The harmful effects of mycotoxins on intestinal health have received worldwide attention. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, and include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids. Insuring the absence or low levels of mycotoxins is critical for food and feed safety. Currently, the studies in this field have illuminated the adverse effects of mycotoxins on gut health including intestinal integrity and the gut-associated immune system. By affecting the proteins and peptides that serve vital functions in the immune system and host metabolism, mycotoxins are able to attack intestinal epithelium, which leads to poor intestinal health and integrity. This review focuses on the effects of exposure to mycotoxins on the intestinal barrier, especially the gut microbiome, intestinal local immune system, and tight junction proteins, which in return influence digestion, absorption, metabolism and transport of the nutrients in intestinal lumen. The crucial role of mycotoxins on microbial metabolism and antimicrobial properties is also assessed, which elucidates the relationship between exposure to mycotoxins and the intestinal microbiome. We hypothesize that the key small peptides and proteins regulate the causal relationship between mycotoxins and gut microbiome.
Mycotoxins, gut microbiome, immune system, nutrient absorption, tight junction proteins, small peptides.
State Key Lab of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, Department of Dermatology, Land force General Hospital of PLA, Beijing, 100000, State Key Lab of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, Department of Gastroenterology, The Third Hospital of Peking University, North Garden Road, Beijing, 100191, State Key Lab of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193