Article Details


Effects of Environmental Temperature and Dietary Fat Content on The Performance and Heat Production and Substrate Oxidation in Growing Pigs

[ Vol. 24 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Rui Han, Hailong Jiang, Dongsheng Che, Nan Bao, Dong Xiang, Feifei Liu, Huaming Yang, Zhibin Ban and Guixin Qin   Pages 425 - 431 ( 7 )

Abstract:


This study aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature and dietary fat level on growth performance, heat production, nutrient oxidation and nitrogen balance in growing pigs. Thirty-two pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) with initial weight of 25±1.91 kg were assigned to treatments in 2×4 factorial design. All pigs were fed with two isoenergetic and isoproteic diets of different fat levels (low fat level: 3.68% fat of dry matter (DM) and high fat level: 8.39% fat of DM) under four environmental temperatures (23, 18, 13 and 8 ºC). Heat production (HP) and nutrient oxidation were calculated from gas exchange via measurement with respiration chambers. The results showed that there was no interaction effect on growth performance by the temperature and dietary fat level. The average daily feed intake (ADFI) was lower (P < 0.001), the average daily gain (ADG) was higher (P < 0.001) and feed utilization was more efficient at 23 ºC than 13 and 8 ºC (P < 0.001). Dietary fat had no effect on growth performance and feed utilization at the four different temperatures. A significant interaction (P < 0.001) between temperature and dietary fat level on oxidation of carbohydrate (OXCHO) and fat (OXF) was observed. HP, OXF and OXCHO were significantly increased (P < 0.001) as environment temperatures decreased. Increasing dietary fat generated an increase in the OXF and decrease in the OXCHO (P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in protein oxidation (OXP) of two factors. The intakes of nitrogen, nitrogen excretion in feces (FN) and urine (UN) by the pigs kept in 8 ºC environment were highest. Nitrogen digestibility decreased as environmental temperature decreased, with the most efficient gains obtained at 23 ºC. However, nitrogen retention was not influenced by environmental temperature. Dietary fat level did not affect nitrogen balance. No significant interaction between temperature and dietary fat level was observed for nitrogen balance. These results indicated that the rate of growth and nutrition utilization in pigs fed ad libitum are influenced by the environmental temperatures in which they are maintained, and the oxidation of nutrition utilization of the pig to different environmental temperatures is altered by the dietary fat supplementation.

Keywords:

Environment temperature, dietary fat, heat production, nutrient oxidation, carbohydrate oxidation, nitrogen balance.

Affiliation:

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin Provincial Key Lab of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1363 Caiyu Street, Changchun, Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1363 Caiyu Street, Changchun, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Faculty of Jilin Agricultral University, P.O. Box: 130118, Changchun

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