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HYPO: A Database of Human Hypothetical Proteins

[ Vol. 25 , Issue. 8 ]


Vijayaraghava S. Sundararajan*, Girik Malik, Johny Ijaq, Anuj Kumar, Partha Sarathi Das, Shidhi P.R., Achuthsankar S. Nair, Pawan K. Dhar* and Prashanth Suravajhala*   Pages 799 - 803 ( 5 )


Background: There are genes whose function remains obscure as they may not have similarities to known regions in the genome. Such known ‘unknown’ genes constituting the Open Reading Frames (ORF) that remain in the epigenome are termed as orphan genes and the proteins encoded by them but having no experimental evidence of translation are termed as ‘Hypothetical Proteins’ (HPs).

Objectives: We have enhanced our former database of Hypothetical Proteins (HP) in human (HypoDB) with added annotation, application programming interfaces and descriptive features. The database hosts 1000+ manually curated records of the known ‘unknown’ regions in the human genome. The new updated version of HypoDB with functionalities (Blast, Match) is freely accessible at

Methods: The total collection of HPs were checked using experimentally validated sets (from Swiss-Prot) or non-experimentally validated set (TrEMBL) or the complete set (UniProtKB). The database was designed with java at the core backend, integrated with databases, viz. EMBL, PIR, HPRD and those including descriptors for structural databases, interaction and association databases.

Results: The HypoDB constituted Application Programming Interfaces (API) for implicitly searching resources linking them to other databases like NCBI Link-out in addition to multiple search capabilities along with advanced searches using integrated bio-tools, viz. Match and BLAST were incorporated.

Conclusion: The HypoDB is perhaps the only open-source HP database with a range of tools for common bioinformatics retrievals and serves as a standby reference to researchers who are interested in finding candidate sequences for their potential experimental work.


Bioinformatics, orphan genes, hypothetical proteins, database, application programming interfaces, BLAST.

Affiliation:, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500072, Department of Pediatrics, The Battelle Center for Mathematical Medicine, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children`s Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH,, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500072,, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500072,, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500072, Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Kerala, Thiruvanantapuram, 695581, Keralam, Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Kerala, Thiruvanantapuram, 695581, Keralam, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067,, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500072

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