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Inhibition of Amyloid Fibrillation by Small Molecules and Nanomaterials: Strategic Development of Pharmaceuticals Against Amyloidosis

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Vandna Sharma and Kalyan Sundar Ghosh*   Pages 315 - 323 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Amyloid fibrils are a special class of self-assembled protein molecules, which exhibit various toxic effects in cells. Different physiological disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s diseases, etc. happen due to amyloid formation and lack of proper cellular mechanism for the removal of fibrils. Therefore, inhibition of amyloid fibrillation will find immense applications to combat the diseases associated with amyloidosis. The development of therapeutics against amyloidosis is definitely challenging and numerous strategies have been followed to find out anti-amyloidogenic molecules. Inhibition of amyloid aggregation of proteins can be achieved either by stabilizing the native conformation or by decreasing the chances of assembly formation by the unfolded/misfolded structures. Various small molecules such as naturally occurring polyphenols, flavonoids, small organic molecules, surfactants, dyes, chaperones, etc. have demonstrated their capability to interrupt the amyloid fibrillation of proteins. In addition to that, in last few years, different nanomaterials were evolved as effective therapeutic inhibitors against amyloidosis. Aromatic and hydrophobic interactions between the partially unfolded protein molecules and the inhibitors had been pointed as a general mechanism for inhibition. In this review article, we are presenting an overview on the inhibition of amyloidosis by using different small molecules (both natural and synthetic origin) as well as nanomaterials for development of pharmaceutical strategies against amyloid diseases.

Keywords:

Amyloid fibrillation, inhibition, small molecules, nanomaterials, aromatic and hydrophobic interactions, antiamyloidogenic molecules.

Affiliation:

Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh 177005, Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh 177005

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