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Carbonic Anhydrase Carrying Electrospun Nanofibers for Biocatalysis Applications

[ Vol. 28 , Issue. 5 ]


Özlem Biçen Ünlüer, Kardelen Ecevit and Sibel Emir Diltemiz*   Pages 520 - 532 ( 13 )


Background: Enzymes are efficient biocatalysis that catalysis a large number of reactions due to their chemical, regional, or stereo specifities and selectivity. Their usage in bioreactor or biosensor systems has great importance. Carbonic anhydrase enzyme catalyzes the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid. In organisms, the carbonic anhydrase enzyme has crucial roles connected with pH and CO2 homeostasis, respiration, and transport of CO2/bicarbonate, etc. So, immobilization of the enzyme is important in stabilizing the catalyst against thermal and chemical denaturation in bioreactor systems when compared to the free enzyme that is unstable at high temperatures and extreme pH values, as well as in the presence of organic solvents or toxic reagents. Nano-scale composite materials have attracted considerable attention in recent years, and electrospinning based all-nanocomposite materials have a wide range of applications. In this study, electrospun nanofibers were fabricated and used for the supporting media for carbonic anhydrase enzyme immobilization to enhance the enzyme storage and usage facilities.

Objective: In this article, our motivation is to obtain attractive electrospun support for carbonic anhydrase enzyme immobilization to enhance the enzyme reusability and storage ability in biocatalysis applications.

Methods: In this article, we propose electrospun nanofibers for carbonic anhydrase carrying support for achieving our aforementioned object. In the first part of the study, agar with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers was directly fabricated from an agar-PAN mixture solution using the electrospinning method, and fabricated nanofibers were cross-linked via glutaraldehyde (GA). The morphology, chemical structure, and stability of the electrospun nanofibers were characterized. In the second part of the study, the carbonic anhydrase enzyme was immobilized onto fabricated electrospun nanofibers. Then, enzyme activity, the parameters that affect enzyme immobilization such as pH, enzyme amount, immobilization time, etc. and reusability were investigated.

Results: When the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis results are combined in the characterization process of the synthesized electrospun nanofibers, the optimum cross-linking time is found to be 8 hours using 5% glutaraldehyde cross-linking agent. Then, thermal stability measurements showed that the thermal stability of electrospun nanofibers has an excellent characteristic for biomedical applications. The optimum temperature value was found 37°C, pH 8 was determined as an optimum pH, and 100 ppm carbonic anhydrase enzyme concentration was found to be optimum enzyme concentration for the carbonic anhydrase enzyme immobilization. According to the kinetic data, carbonic anhydrase immobilized electrospun nanofibers acted as a biocatalyst in the conversion of the substrate to the product in 83.98%, and immobilized carbonic anhydrase enzyme is reusable up to 9 cycles in biocatalysis applications.

Conclusion: After applying the framework, we get a new biocatalysis application platform for carbonic anhydrase enzyme. Electrospun nanofibers were chosen as the support material for enzyme immobilization. By using this approach, the carbonic anhydrase enzyme could easily be used in the industrial area by cost-effective advantageous aspects.


Enzyme immobilization, electrospinning, carbonic anhydrase, nanofibers, biocatalysis, polyacrylonitrile.


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Eskişehir Technical University, Yunus Emre Campus, Eskişehir 26470, Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences, Eskisehir Technical University, Eskişehir 26470, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Eskişehir Technical University, Yunus Emre Campus, Eskişehir 26470

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