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Hydroalcoholic Extract of Solanum lycocarpum A. St. Hil. (Solanaceae) Leaves Improves Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Complications in Mice

Author(s):

Victor Hugo Dantas Guimarãesa, Jéssica Nayara Basilio Silva, Daniela Fernanda de Freitas, Otávio Cardoso Filho, Luiz Henrique da Silveira, Barbhara Mota Marinho, Alfredo Maurício Batista de Paula, Geraldo Aclécio Melo and Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos*  

Abstract:


Background: Solanum lycocarpum is a medicinal plant widely-used in Brazil because its fruits have hypoglycemic activity. However, the fruits are restricted in some periods of the year.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of S. lycocarpum leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of S. lycocarpum was characterized by phytochemical and GC-MS analysis. The Antidiabetic activity was assessed following treatment for 22 days with S. lycocarpum extract at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Bodyweight, water, and food intake, glycemia, biochemical parameters, anatomy-histopathology of the pancreas, liver and kidney, and expression of target genes were analyzed. In addition, oral acute toxicity was evaluated.

Results: Animals treated showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in glycemia following a dose of 125 mg/kg. Food intake remained similar for all groups. Decreased polydipsia symptoms were observed after treatment with 250 (p < 0.001) and 500 mg/kg (p < 0.01) compared with diabetic control, although normal rates were observed when 125 mg/kg was administered. A protective effect was also observed in the pancreas, liver, and kidneys, through the regeneration of the islets. Hypoglycemic activity can be attributed to myo-inositol, which stimulates insulin secretion, associated with α-tocopherol, which prevents damage from oxidative stress and apoptosis of β-pancreatic cells by an increased Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) mRNA expression. The toxicological test demonstrated safe oral use of the extract under the present conditions.

Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of S. lycocarpum promotes the regulation of diabetes in the case of moderate glycemic levels, by decreasing glycemia and exerting protective effects on the islets.

Keywords:

Diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemic activity, medicinal plants, folk medicine, Myo-inositol, α-tocopherol, phytochemistry, “Lobeira”.

Affiliation:

Laboratory of Health Science, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (Unimontes), Minas Gerais,, Laboratory of Biochemical and Genetics of Plants, Postgraduate Program in Biochemistry, Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), Minas Gerais,, Laboratory of Health Science, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (Unimontes), Minas Gerais,, Laboratory of Health Science, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (Unimontes), Minas Gerais,, Laboratory of pathological anatomy and cytopathology - Hospital Universitário Clemente de Faria (HUCF), Minas Gerais,, Laboratory of Health Science, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (Unimontes), Minas Gerais,, Laboratory of Health Science, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (Unimontes), Minas Gerais,, Department of Biology, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (Unimontes), Minas Gerais,, Institute of Agricultural Sciences (ICA), Food Engineering, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais



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