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Detection of Melanogenesis and Anti-Apoptosis-Associated Melanoma Factors: Array CGH and PPI Mapping Integrating Study


Shang-Jun Yin, Guo-Ying Qian, Jun-Mo Yang, Jinhyuk Lee* and Yong-Doo Park   Pages 1 - 17 ( 17 )


Background: We investigated melanogenesis- and anti-apoptosis-related melanoma factors in melanoma cells (TXM1, TXM18, A375P, and A375SM).

Objective: To find melanoma associated hub factor, high-throughput screening-based techniques integrating with bioinformatics were investigated.

Methods: Array CGH analysis was conducted with a commercial system. Total genomic DNAs prepared individually from each cell line with control DNA were properly labeled with Cy3-dCTP and Cy5-dCTP and hybridizations and subsequently performed data treatment by the log2 green (G; test) to red (R; reference) fluorescence ratios (G/R). Gain or loss of copy number was judged by spots with log2-transformed ratios. PPI mapping analysis of detected candidate genes based on the array CGH results was conducted using the human interactome in the STRING database. Energy minimization and a short Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation using the implicit solvation model in CHARMM were performed to analyze the interacting residues between YWHAZ and YWHAB.

Results: Three genes (BMP-4, BFGF, LEF-1) known to be involved in melanogenesis were found to lose chromosomal copy numbers, and Chr. 6q23.3 was lost in all tested cell lines. Ten hub genes (CTNNB1, PEX13, PEX14, PEX5, IFNG, EXOSC3, EXOSC1, EXOSC8, UBC, and PEX10) were predicted to be functional interaction factors in the network of the 6q23.3 locus. The apoptosis-associated genes E2F1, p50, BCL2L1, and BIRC7 gained, and FGF2 lost chromosomal copy numbers in the tested melanoma cell lines. YWHAB, which gained chromosomal copy numbers, was predicted to be the most important hub protein in melanoma cells. Molecular dynamics simulations for binding YWHAB and YWHAZ were conducted, and the complex was predicted to be energetically and structurally stable through its 3 hydrogen-bond patterns. The number of interacting residues is 27.

Conclusion: Our study compares genome-wide screening interactomics predictions for melanoma factors and offers new information for understanding melanogenesis- and anti-apoptosis-associated mechanisms in melanoma. Especially, YWHAB was newly detected as a core factor in melanoma cells.


Melanoma, array CGH, PPI mapping, molecular dynamics simulation, YWHAB, melanogenesis.


College of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100, College of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100, Department of Dermatology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul 135-710, Genome Editing Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, College of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100

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