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Tannic Acid Exhibits Adjuvant Activity by Enhancing Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity Against BSA as a Protein Antigen

Author(s):

Nidia Cabral-Hipólito, Brenda Sarahí Molina-Ramírez, Irais Castillo-Maldonado, Rocío Meza-Velázquez, Rubén García-Garza, Sergio-Everardo Velázquez Gauna, Dealmy Delgadillo-Guzmán, Alejandro Hernández-Herrera, Agustina Ramírez-Moreno, Jorge Haro-Santa Cruz, Perla-Karina Espino-Silva and David Pedroza-Escobar*  

Abstract:


Background: Immunization or vaccination is the process of inducing artificial immunity against an antigen taking advantage of the mechanisms of immunological memory. Current vaccines include substances known as adjuvants, which tend to improve the immunogenicity of the antigen, reduce the antigen quantity employed, and boost the immune response in weak responders. Unfortunately, only a few vaccine adjuvants are approved for human use.

Objective: Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Tannic acid on humoral and cell-mediated immunity against bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a protein antigen in Wistar rats.

Method: In order to establish the Tannic acid concentration to test it as an adjuvant, the lethal dose 50 and maximum non-toxic dose were calculated through cytotoxicity and hemolytic assays with J774 A.1 cell line and rat erythrocytes by resazurin reduction method and UV/vis spectrophotometry. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups that included two controls without antigen and three treatment groups of adjuvants plus BSA as a protein antigen. The rats were immunized in a 30-day scheme. Blood samples were collected for humoral immunity analysis by means of immunoglobulin quantification, isotyping and antigen-antibody precipitation inhibition analysis. Rat peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes were isolated for cell-mediated immunity analysis by means of nitric oxide quantification from adjuvant stimulated peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes proliferation assay.

Results: Tannic acid was capable of increasing the immunogenicity of the antigen; besides, it was able to stimulate cell-mediated immunity by means of increased lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, Tannic acid improved the humoral response by means of increased specific antibodies titers. These activities may be attributed to pattern recognition receptors stimulation. Conclusion: Tannic acid was considered biocompatible when tested in vivo because the concentration tested did not show cytotoxicity or hemolytic effect, and there was no detrimental effect observed on the animals’ health. These results show Tannic acid as a promising candidate for vaccine adjuvant.

Keywords:

Adjuvant, cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity, immunogenicity, tannic acid, vaccine adjuvant

Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreon, Torreon, Department of Biochemistry, Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreon, Torreon, Department of Biochemistry, Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreon, Torreon, Department of Research, FACSA, Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Gomez Palacio, Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreon, Torreon, Department of Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreon, Torreon, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Torreon, Department of Biochemistry, Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreon, Torreon, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreon, Torreon, Department of Biochemistry, Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreon, Torreon, Department of Genetics, Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreon, Torreon, Department of Biochemistry, Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreon, Torreon



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