Lama A. Abdul Moti, Zahid Hussain*, Hnin E. Thu, Shahzeb Khan, Mohammad Sohail and Rai M. Sarfraz Pages 4356 - 4375 ( 20 )
<P>Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most aggressive and prevalent types of cancer, which is associated with a high rate of mortality and colossal potential of metastasis to other body organs. Conventionally, there are three commonly employed strategies for the treatment of BC including, surgery, radiations and chemotherapy; however, these modalities are associated with several deleterious effects and a high rate of relapse. </P><P> Objective: This review was aimed to critically discuss and conceptualize existing evidences related to the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of multi-functionalization of nanomedicines for early diagnosis and efficient treatment of BC. </P><P> Results: Though the implication of nanotechnology-based modalities has revolutionised the outcomes of diagnosis and treatment of BC; however, the clinical translation of these nanomedicines is facing grandeur challenges. These challenges include recognition by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), short plasma half-life, non-specific accumulation in the non-cancerous cells, and expulsion of the drug(s) by the efflux pump. To circumvent these challenges, various adaptations such as PEGylation, conjugation of targeting ligand(s), and siteresponsive behaviour (i.e., pH-responsiveness, biochemical, or thermal-responsiveness) have been adapted. Similarly, multi-functionalization of nanomedicines has emerged as an exceptional strategy to improve the pharmacokinetic profile, specific targetability to the tumor microenvironment (active targeting) and efficient internalization, and to alleviate the expulsion of internalized drug contents by silencing-off efflux pump. </P><P> Conclusion: Critical analysis of the available evidences revealed that multi-functionalization of nanomedicines is a plausible and sustainable adaptation for early diagnosis and treatment of BC with better therapeutic outcomes.</P>
Breast cancer, nanomedicines, multi-functionalization, targetability, anticancer efficacy, nano-diagnostics.
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, Research and Innovation Department, Lincoln University College, Petaling Jaya 47301, Selangor, Department of Pharmacy, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir Lower 18800, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad, 22010, Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Punjab