Larisa V. Kordyukova*, Marina V. Serebryakova, Vladislav V. Khrustalev and Michael Veit Pages 588 - 600 ( 13 )
Post-translational modifications often regulate protein functioning. Covalent attachment of long chain fatty acids to cysteine residues via a thioester linkage (known as protein palmitoylation or S-acylation) affects protein trafficking, protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions. This post-translational modification is coupled to membrane fusion or virus assembly and may affect viral replication in vitro and thus also virus pathogenesis in vivo. In this review we outline modern methods to study S-acylation of viral proteins and to characterize palmitoylproteomes of virus infected cells. The palmitoylation site predictor CSS-palm is critically tested against the Class I enveloped virus proteins. We further focus on identifying the S-acylation sites directly within acyl-peptides and the specific fatty acid (e.g, palmitate, stearate) bound to them using MALDI-TOF MS-based approaches. The fatty acid heterogeneity/ selectivity issue attracts now more attention since the recently published 3D-structures of two DHHC-acyl-transferases gave a hint how this might be achieved.
Enveloped viruses, influenza virus, S-acylation, palmitate, stearate, MALDI-TOF MS, DHHC-acyl-transferases.
Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Department of General Chemistry, Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk 220116, Institut für Virologie, Vet.-Med. Faculty, Free University Berlin, Berlin 14163